Monday, January 20, 2020

The Idealism of Kurt Vonnegut :: Biography Biographies Essays

The Idealism of Kurt Vonnegut Kurt Vonnegut was greatly influenced by his involvement in World War II. His entanglement with the Dresden bombing had an unequivocal effect upon his mentality, and the horrid experience propelled the liberal anti-war assertions that dominate many of his novels. Throughout his life, his idealistic nature has perceptibly undulated, and five representative novels illustrate the forceful progression and gradual declivity of his liberal views. The first thirty years of his life outwardly coincided with the average American man. He was born in Indianapolis on November 11, 1922, and lived a happy childhood with a stable family. He then proceeded to pursue science in college, serve his country in World War II, study under the GI Bill after the war, and land a job in public relations before becoming a full-time writer. Even his large and growing family seemed to capture the true spirit of the American ideal. However, one element of his past would affect him in a way that would change his life forever. In December 1944, he was captured by the Germans at the Battle of the Bulge. He and his fellow POWs were taken to Dresden, an "open" city rich with architectural treasures and devoid of any military value. British and American planes needlessly firebombed the city on the night of February 13, 1945, hoping to inspire terror in the Germans and crush their fighting spirit. Over 135,000 civilians were killed-twice the amount of casualties at Hiroshima. The insane horror and absurdity of the Dresden attack remained deeply etched into Vonnegut's mind from that day forward. Nearly two decades later, Vonnegut published Mother Night, a novel that displays the profound influence that the massacre exerted upon him. It contains this stirring autobiographical account of his Dresden experience in its preface: We didn't get to see the fire storm. We were in a cool meat-locker under the slaughterhouse with our six guards

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Explain How An Organisation Can Cost A Product And Determine Its Price At Any Activity Level

You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice: 1. Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs 2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why. You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice:Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why.You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice: 1. Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs 2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why.You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice: 1. Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs 2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why. You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice: 1. Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs 2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why.You may wish to choose a business you already have knowledge of from trips or your part-time employer. For a product of your choice: 1. Clearly explain the main cost elements and the nature of those costs – define and give relevant examples of variable, fixed, semi-variable, direct and indirect costs 2. Suggest the weekly production level and a breakdown of costs for one product from your chosen business. Then calculate the marginal and absorption costs per unit. 3. Describe at least 2 methods of setting the price, including cost-plus pricing. Then suggest which method is best suited to your chosen business’ product and why.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Is Music Piracy Stealing - 1229 Words

The Global music industry makes around $43.9 billion dollars a year. $12.5 billion of that is lost each year due to Piracy in the music industry and 70% of online users find nothing wrong with online piracy (â€Å"Music’s Last Decade: Sales Cut in Half†). Is it wrong? Is music piracy stealing? This topic is said to have inspired Charles W. Moore to illustrate these points in his essay. Charles W. Moore writes the essay â€Å"Is Music Piracy Stealing?† and tries to answer his own question. Moore starts off by explaining that current day pirates simply do not care about copyright laws. He goes into detail about the philosophy, ethics, and morality of the threat to the free exchange of music over the Internet. Moore says, â€Å"Digital copywriting is as serious and criminal as stealing a CD from a record shop or a DVD from a video shop† (242). The subject on piracy is a controversial and an argumentative subject. Although Moore gives many great examples throu ghout his essay, he also has some faulty reasoning such as the root question of his argument is not provable, his factual data is excessive, he has lousy introduction and closing paragraphs, and his views are biased. The foundation that Moore is trying to set his argument upon is not quite as sturdy as he might think. Moore’s argument on piracy is that it is a victimless crime and that laws must change along with technology. He does not convince the reader that music piracy is or is not in fact morally amiss. Even if theShow MoreRelatedMusic Piracy Is Not A Victimless Crime Essay1278 Words   |  6 Pages Many people have a different way at looking at things, especially when it comes to pirating music. Music piracy is the illegal copying or downloading of music without the consent of the artist as well as the recording company that made the song. The question that many might argue is whether or not music piracy is a victimless crime. This subject influenced a journalist by the name of Charles W. Moore. Charles Moore has an interesting story. Ten years after graduating from the UniversityRead MoreEssay Piracy in China1311 Words   |  6 PagesPiracy in China The American Heritage Dictionary defines piracy as â€Å"the unauthorized duplication of copyrighted or patented material.† It is a problem that affects companies all over the world. Piracy of software, movies, and music is commonplace in China. China has the second worst piracy rate in the world; about 92 percent of the software in China is pirated (Williams 2004). Various companies and governments have attempted to combat piracy, but they had not seen much success until recentRead MoreMusic Piracy Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesAs a result of music piracy, the United States economy loses about $12.5 billion per year (RIAA). Not only do wealthy record labels and headline artists lose money, but songwriters, music publishers, music engineers, and even record store clerks suffer losses. Music pirates are people who share and download music over the Internet without paying for it. Piracy has been an ongoing issue for record companies and the artists they represent. It started all the way back in the days of cassette recordersRead MoreInternet Piracy : Friend Or Foe?1327 Words   |  6 PagesEnglish 3 Honors 5 November 2015 Internet Piracy: Friend or Foe? Internet piracy has been debated about for almost two decades, and still its effects are not clear to the public. Piracy is the act of illegally copying files that have been copyrighted, usually things like music, movies, games, and even books. The music and film industry usually report about a sharp decline in sales because of piracy, but other experts disagree and some even claim that piracy is helping those industries. There are obviouslyRead MorePiracy And Its Effects On Online Piracy1630 Words   |  7 Pages â€Æ' IV. Piracy its Effects: Online piracy is another substantial type of a cybercrime. With rapid developments to technology, piracy has become easier and more widespread. Piracy, the act of pirating, is defined as the illegal reproduction, via copying or counterfeiting, of any type of work which includes: software, recordings, or even motion pictures. Although are many ways to pirate material, online piracy is most common. Online piracy uses the internet, and computer technology to illegally reproduceRead MorePiracy: A Different Perspective Essay833 Words   |  4 Pagesimage usually conjured up when one is discussing piracy. At one point in time, this was correct - sailors roamed the seas freely pillaging merchant vessels. Now a days, Piracy has mainly slipped underground. Chances are, you may know a pirate personally without knowing the crimes they commit. For these crimes are not public, instead they are committed online. Filesharing is on the rise, much to the parent media corporations chagrin. Piracy is popular because of its ease of use, and widespreadRead MoreThe Issues Facing The Entertainment Industry848 Words   |  4 PagesAs technology advances, so do the issues that come with it. One of the biggest issues facing the entertainment industry is piracy. It is illegal under federal law to copy or reproduce someone else’s work without their permission, not to mention it is also unethical. There are arguments to be made that it is hurting the entertainment industry by losing revenue. While people may try to justify illegally copying technology the truth is it is no different than someone robbing a bank. When a studio producesRead MoreThe Piracy Of Music Piracy1507 Words   |  7 PagesAC8 The Abomination of Music Piracy A new type of theft has had a spike in the recent years, in which the internet has become extremely prominent at this time. This new theft is called â€Å"online piracy† This theft occurs when an online user uses a P2P(Peer to peer) website for file sharing, and shares files such as songs or software. This is considered theft due the fact that the files aren’t free, they have a price to them. Music Piracy is an abomination to artistry, and the creation of Art. ItRead MoreThe Ethics Of File Sharing1378 Words   |  6 Pages These services are programs or websites that stream music for free, such as YouTube, Pandora, SoundCloud, and Rhapsody. Many of these services may also provide a premium account for elevated privileges. File sharing is an issue that can be solved with the practice of the prior mentioned concepts. Businesses can solve many issues by embracing the digital market(s). New issues arise from the transition to digital media. File sharing is piracy, which is the theft of products from companies largeRead MoreInternet Piracy Harms Artists By Phil Gardson1033 Words   |  5 PagesAn Author and His Declaration In the article â€Å"Internet Piracy Harms Artists†, Phil Gardson explains how internet piracy such as online music sharing and other forms of copyrighting music hurts hardworking singers and songwriters. He also asserts that it is imperative that Congress should in act a law against these types of crimes to help protect artists. Philip Gardson is a composer, lyricist, and a music publisher. He is most notable as a songwriter, who writes songs and lyrics to producers,

Friday, December 27, 2019

Complex Words Definition and Examples

In English grammar and morphology, a complex word is a  word made up of two or more morphemes. Contrast with monomorphemic word. A complex word may consist of (1) a base (or root) and one or more affixes (for example, quicker), or (2) more than one root in a compound (for example, blackbird). Examples and Observations [W]e say that bookishness is a complex word, whose immediate components are bookish and -ness, which we can express in shorthand by spelling the word with dashes between each morph: book-ish-ness. The process of dividing a word into morphs is called parsing. (Keith M. Denning et al., English Vocabulary Elements. Oxford University Press, 2007) Transparency and Opaqueness A morphologically complex word is semantically transparent if its meaning is obvious from its parts: hence unhappiness is semantically transparent, being made up in a predictable fashion from un, happy, and ness. A word like department, even though it contains recognizable morphemes, is not semantically transparent. The meaning of depart in department is not obviously related to the depart in departure. It is semantically opaque. (Trevor A. Harley, The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. Taylor Francis, 2001) Blender Let us consider the complex word blender. What can we say about its morphology? One aspect we can mention is that it consists of two morphemes, blend and er. Besides, we can say that blend is the root, since it is not further analysable, and at the same time the base to which the suffix -er is attached. To conclude, if we carry out morphological analysis, we usually show what morphemes a word consists of and describe these morphemes in terms of their type. (Ingo Plag et al, Introduction to English Linguistics. Walter de Gruyer, 2007) The Hypothesis of Lexical Integrity The lexicon . . . is not just a set of words, but also comprises word combinations. For example, English (like most Germanic languages) has many verb-particle combinations, also called phrasal verbs of the type to look up which clearly consist of two words which are even separable: (20a) The student looked up the information(20b) The student looked the information up The verb look up cannot be one word since its two parts can be separated, as in sentence (20b). A basic assumption in morphology is the hypothesis of Lexical Integrity: the constituents of a complex word cannot be operated upon by syntactic rules. Put differently: words behave as atoms with respect to syntactic rules, which cannot look inside the word and see its internal morphological structure. Hence, the movement of up to the end of the sentence in (20b) can only be accounted for if look up is a combination of two words. That is, phrasal verbs such as lookup are certainly lexical units, but not words. Words are just a subset of the lexical units of a language. Another way of putting this is to say that look up is a listeme but not a lexeme of English (DiSciullo and Williams, 1987). Other examples of lexical multi-word units are adjective-noun combinations such as red tape, big toe, atomic bomb, and industrial output. Such phrases are established terms for referring to certain kinds of entities, and hence they must be listed in the lexicon. (Geert E. Booij, The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2012)

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Thomas Hobbes And The Social Contract - 3563 Words

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), an English philosopher published the work, Leviathan, which proposed the concept of the social contract, in which societal assimilation mandates submission to authoritarian rule, with a relinquishment of certain rights, in return for protection and aid. Hobbes offered a foundational premise for benefits that otherwise might be absent, if not for societal constructs. John Locke, another English philosopher published the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which expounded on the work of Hobbes by proposing a more integrated and ordered society. The societal implications meant a surrender of some individual freedoms in return for a governmental structure tasked with the responsibility of protections, including the†¦show more content†¦Cesare believed that punishment was an effective deterrent to crime, as the offender is rational and in control of their actions and behaviors. Cesare expressed that the â€Å"punishment should fit the crime† a nd that â€Å"adjudication and punishment should be both swift and certain†. He advocated for due process on the implication of innocence until proven guilty and condemned torture on the same pretense as torturous punishment towards self-incrimination implies guilt prior to a guilty verdict by a judicial body. His principles influenced classic criminology in the principles of punishment, due process, rationality, and human rights. The Bill of Rights in the US constitution has several concepts influenced, some believe, by his writings. (Cesare Beccaria, 2017)Jeremy Bentham, author of â€Å"Introduction to the Principles of Moral and Legislation†, built on Cesare statement that â€Å"punish should fit the crime†, by asserting that the hedonistic nature of man requires that the pain or punishment of committing the crime outweigh the pleasure or reward obtained from committing the crime (Schmalleger, 2010). Bentham asserted the position that human rationality and h edonistic pursuits factored into the mentality of an individual’s decision to commit a crime based on proper or extreme punishments to serve as a deterrent. Hobbes’Show MoreRelatedSocial Contract Theory Thomas Hobbes2009 Words   |  9 PagesSocial contract theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that person s moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. The Social Contract is largely associated with modern moral and political theory, and is given its first full exposition and defense by Thomas Hobbes in his piece, Leviathan. After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known proponents of this influential theoryRead MoreThomas Hobbes and the Social Contract Essay1300 Words   |  6 Pages Thomas Hobbes was the first philosopher to connect the philosophical commitments to politics. He offers a distinctive definition to what man needs in life which is a successful means to a conclusion. He eloquently defines the social contract of man after defining the intentions of man. This paper will account for why Hobbes felt that man was inherently empowered to preserve life through all means necessary, and how he creates an authorization for an absolute sovereign authority to help keepRead MoreAn Outline of Thomas Hobbes Social Contract1395 Words   |  6 PagesOutline Hobbes theory on the social contract giving details on what he believed was needed to maintain it. I will attempt to answer this question by initially explaining what Hobbes view on humanity was, since these views were what caused him to write his theory on the social contract, quote part of what he wrote regarding the subject and what it means in laymans terms What Hobbes believed: Thomas Hobbes, a 17th century British philosopher, had a rather pessimistic (but, in my opinion,Read MoreThomas Hobbes And The Social Contract Theory1088 Words   |  5 PagesConstitution has been kept the same. The Leviathan, Two Treatises, and the Declaration of Independence serve as underpinnings of the Constitution to keep and protect our freedoms. Thomas Hobbes wrote the Leviathan in the early 1640 s. Hobbes Leviathan played a part of social contract theory. The social contract theory is a voluntary agreement among individuals that which organized society is brought it into being and invested with the right to secure a mutual protection and welfare to regulateRead MoreEssay on Thomas Hobbes Social Contract Theory982 Words   |  4 PagesIn Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes lays out the hypothetical principal of the state of nature, where human it-self is artificial. It is human nature that people will not be able to love permanently, everyone against everyone power between the strongest. In this nation-state you must be the strongest in order to survive (survival of the fittest). In order to survive there are laws we must follow, to insure of our security because of fear. We were able to suppress our fear, by creating order, to have moreRead MoreEssay on Thomas Hobbes and the Social Theory Contract597 Words   |  3 PagesPhi losopher, Thomas Hobbes and the Social Theory Contract for a clear understanding of the issues. The Social Contract Theory is the basis for the Declaration of Independence and the guiding theories for the Unite States Government as well as many other governments, such as the European Union, England and France, to name a few. The theory is about why people choose to give us some of their rights and powers in order to form a government. That government has a series of purposes. Thomas Hobbes theorizedRead MoreThomas Hobbes Social Contract Theory Essay895 Words   |  4 PagesThomas Hobbes creates a clear idea of the social contract theory in which the social contract is a collective agreement where everyone in the state of nature comes together and sacrifices all their liberty in return to security. â€Å"In return, the State promises to exercise its absolute power to maintain a state of peace (by punishing deviants, etc.)† So are the power and the ability of the state making people obey to the laws or is there a wider context to this? I am going to look at the differentRead MorePolitical And Social Contract Theory By Thomas Hobbes951 Words   |  4 PagesSocial contract theory refers to the view that peoples’ political and moral obligations are contingent on an agreement or contact among them to constitute a wholesome society where they can live in harmony. It is often associated with contemporary political and moral theory and was given the first comprehensive exposition by Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes was fearful of man’s violent and lawless nature, perhaps due to his experience during the Puritan revolution. He was of the conviction that self-preservationRead MoreThe Social Contract Theories Of Thomas Hobbes And John Locke1210 Words   |  5 PagesMahogany Mills Professor: Dr. Arnold Political Philosophy 4 February 2015 Compare and contrast the social contract theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke In the beginning of time, there was no government to regulate man. This caused a burden on society and these hardships had to be conquered, which is when a social contract was developed. The social contract theory is a model that addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over an individualRead MoreThomas Hobbes and John Lockes Varying Presentations of the Social Contract Theory1499 Words   |  6 PagesBoth Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are well-known political philosophers and social contract theorists. Social Contract Theory is, â€Å"the hypothesis that one’s moral obligations are dependent upon an implicit agreement between individuals to form a society.† (IEP, Friend). Both Hobbes and Locke are primarily known for their works concerning political philosophy, namely Hobbes’ Leviathan and Locke’s Two Treatise of Government. Both works contain a different view of a State of Nature and lay out social

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Different Departmentalization in Malaysia free essay sample

Introduction The search for competitive advantage, write management consultants and educators David Nadler and Michael Tushman, is the defining goal of modern-day business. Competing by Design: The Power of Organizational Architecture, is their guide to reaching that goal through total integration of corporate structure, workplace culture, and employee motivation. Bringing all such processes together into one unified organization, they contend, is as important to a companys future as the architectural unity of the building that houses it.Organizational Design is gaining more importance in human resource management as organizations are rethinking their role in the marketplace, their position vis a vis competitors, and their long term strategy. A key strategy in aligning the workforce with business goals, Organizational Design seeks to maximize workforce effectiveness while minimizing or maintaining costs. Five basic organizational structures are used in Organizational Design and adap ted to an organizations needs Basic Organizational Designs Have Six Structure Elements. We will write a custom essay sample on Different Departmentalization in Malaysia or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page . Specialization-a process in which different individuals and units perform different task. 2. Chain Of Command-is the unbroken line of authority that extend from the top of the organizations to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports whom.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

the Benefits of Introducing a Career Development Polic an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

the Benefits of Introducing a Career Development Policy Report on the benefits of introducing a career development policy within the company you work for or have an in depth knowledge of. If such a policy is already in place, evaluate its effectiveness. In order to succeed in the market, companies need to ensure they provide efficient management of human resources. Companies can perform well only in such a case when all of the employees are able to realize their potential, apply their skills and make sufficient contribution to the development of the company. Career development policies are particularly important for those organizations which want to be successful in the market. However, their application in various companies can be rather controversial. Need essay sample on "the Benefits of Introducing a Career Development Policy" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed On one hand, career development policies can be very expensive for the company because it has to hire well-known professors or consultants to give additional knowledge to its employees. Only large companies might be able to afford that, while small companies might not have enough resources for such investments. Smaller companies might thus choose to invest in other more certain assets than employees knowledge, in order to achieve the best allocation of their limited resources. However, the investments in employees knowledge can pay off very fast in many cases, and companies should always consider this alternative. By investing into the knowledge and skills of their employees, companies benefit greatly because employees productivity increases rapidly as the result of trainings. Employees become more confident and they are able to introduce many more new ideas, which will eventually bring great benefit to the company. As an example of a company with a well-developed career development policy, it is could be valuable to examine World Bank. This large institution is well-known in the world for its great career development opportunities. The paper seeks to investigate career development policy in World Bank and identify its effectiveness. Building blocks of career development policy is World Bank include the following ones: Career development services are available for all of the permanent employees of the company; Career development services are offered in a wide range of spheres, including 1-week orientation program for any new employee, various kinds of computer courses, language tutoring in all of the languages of the world (in large, middle-size, small groups or private tutoring), courses in communications, economic policy, poverty and a large variety of other subjects dealing with specifics of a particular department of the Bank; Career development based on performance appraisal of employees; Career development based on a particular program according to which the employee got enrolled in the Bank. The Bank annually adopts large budgets for career development of the personnel. According to the opinion of its executive, employees are the most valuable asset of the Bank, and thus their career development is number one priority. Such policy gives advantages both to every individual employee of the Bank and to the organization in general because productivity increases.It is important to mark that every employee who works full-time (or part-time, such as a consultant) at the World Bank is able to sign up for a large number of courses which he would like to take. An employee of the lower level is certainly not able to attend courses which are designed specifically for top-level management, but he is allowed to take any courses in the general list of the Bank. There might be a line for some courses because they are constantly in demand, and an employee will have to wait for a few months to get into the particular class, but he is always welcome to sign up for the class. Orientation program is offered to any new employee in the staff, disregarding the functions which he is going to fulfill. By attending the orientation program, every employee is able to find out about the operations of the Bank, its policies and prospects of the development. Orientation program last the whole week and every employee gets acquainted with the top professionals of the Bank running its departments, and learns everything about the Banks operations. After going through the orientation program, an employee is able to start studying any language he is interested in, and he will be placed in a group with the knowledge level which answers his level. Every employee is able to take computer classes in software which he is not familiar with. Further career development of the employees depends both on their desires and desires of their managers. Employees are free to choose courses according to their own interests, but from time to time they have to take certain courses because their managers consider it necessary, as the result of performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is currently one of the most important issues in human resources management, and World Banks managers devote considerable attention to it when it comes to career development issues. Bernardin Hall, Posner, Maroney Thomas & Bretz (1994) have all devoted considerable attention to the development of theoretical models of performance appraisal. How can a manager of World Banks department make a conclusion about the necessity to promote this or that employee, increase of decrease his salary, shift him to another department? How can the manager decide which employee needs special training or which can perform on the highest level without additional training? The most efficient tool in such a case is performance appraisal. If carried out correctly and on the basis of efficient methods, performance appraisal can be very helpful for the evaluation of employees work. Companies that hope to succeed in today's competitive business environment must learn to identify their most capable employees for placement in key organizational appointments. To do this, managers should devote more attention to maximizing the effectiveness of performance appraisal systems. (Mcbey 1994: 23). On the basis of performance appraisal, World Banks managers usually make decisions about the necessity of certain training for certain employees. Computer skills are crucial for administrative positions; therefore, most of the employees occupying these positions are required take 2-3 day courses on PowerPoint, Lotus Notes, Excel, SAP and other learning programs. As soon as the employees become professional in these software packages, they are able to perform all of the tasks in their workplace much more efficiently. Employees in professional positions are often required to take courses connected with their position (for example, those who participate in projects dealing with economic policy of Nigeria, are often required to take a 1-week course in the basics of economic policy) or with the languages of the department they are working at (such as Chinese language for the Asia and Pacific Department). Managers are usually required to take courses in communications, for example, conflict solving. One of the most popular communications courses for senior level management at World Bank is Art and Science of Strategic Communication. This course is presented by well-known professors from Harvard and Wharton. Lecture notes of the course are prepared not only based on the course contents, but also the projects which the participants have been working on. Therefore, training is slightly different every time a new group of participants takes it. In such a way, the creators of the course do their best to make the learning program as efficient as possible for the participants. The career development tools at World Bank also greatly depend on the type of the assignment which the employee has. There are many ways to obtain a job at the World Bank, and your career development will be greatly influenced by the nature of your entry-point. If you get a job at the Bank as a consultant, you will have a chance to participate in many learning programs, but your career potential might still be a little limited. You will have to wait until you get a more permanent position to use all of the available learning opportunities. If you get a job as an administrative assistant, you might not be able to take advantage of professional learning programs for a long while. If your first job at the Bank is economist, or financial analyst, or communications officer, or any other professional job, you will have unlimited opportunities for career development. For mid-career professionals, the Bank offers a variety of employment contracts, either open-ended or term, based on the business needs of specific units. Searches are undertaken internationally for jobs that require global outlook and experience and for which staff are expected to be globally mobile. Managers also hire locally when their work programs warrant it. (Employment opportunities. Accessed on February 26, 2006 at URL: However, it is usually very difficult to get a job like that from the start. The most rewarding entry-level position which one can get is a Young Professional. It opens the best horizons for career development for a young person. Young Professional Program is one of the most challenging programs available at World Bank. It is difficult to get selected in it, but those people who get selected have literally unlimited opportunities. As the World Banks website mentions, The Young Professionals Program (YPP) is a starting point for an exciting career in the World Bank. It is a great leadership opportunity in development, which offers a solid base to distinguish a path and start a career in the World Bank, gives the flexibility to work in different areas of the institution, providing an array of opportunities to learn about development work. The program offers the best opportunities for career development available at the Bank. Even though a Young Professional might not be familiar with operations of the Bank in the first place, all of the extensive training which he gets during two years is enough to make him into the top professional of the Bank. Young Professionals Orientation is specially designed to familiarize YPs with the operations of the World Bank. Training in Finance is an intensive program on the fundamentals of finance. Individual training opportunities are also being offered. YPs participate in training activities organized within the World Bank as well as external seminars. (Employment opportunities. Accessed on February 26, 2006 at URL: Young Professionals are considered such valuable assets for the Bank that they get trained in every possible sphere of the Banks operations for them to determine what the best position for them at the Bank is. Young Professionals program has a very large budget because Young Professionals are even required to travel on various missions in order to get exposed to work in other countries during their rotation program. Grass Roots Immersion Program enables YPs with limited exposure to poverty participate in an immersion program so they can learn from the experience. Young Professionals Discussions provide YPs with a better understanding of the policies, procedures, and business culture so they can better integrate into the institution. Opportunities similar to Young Professionals Program are being offered by The Junior Professionals Program for Afro-Descendants (JPPAD). It provides young and motivated individuals with practical, on-the-job experience and training in a global development environment, while giving the Bank an opportunity to benefit from the knowledge, talent and diversity that they can bring to the institution. (Employment opportunities. Accessed on February 26, 2006 at URL: People enrolled in this program also get a chance to obtain training in all of the aspects of the Banks activity in order to determine the most suitable positions for them at the Bank. As a conclusion, it is important to mark that career development policy at the World Bank is very beneficial both for every particular employee and for the Bank in general. As long as the Bank allows all of the employees to participate in various kinds of learning programs, the managers can be sure that employees will stay with the Bank. Employees at the World Bank have a saying that nobody ever leaves the Bank after starting to work in it. Even if somebody leaves, he will be back very fast because he will not be able to find better opportunities elsewhere. Career development policies offered by the World Bank make every employee feel like an important part of the organization, and employees loyalty to the Bank is unlimited. The policy which the Bank has chosen is very efficient. It is the most favorable for employees enrolled as Young Professionals or mid-career professionals because they have the most opportunities for learning, but other employees of the Bank also have great oppor tunities for learning during their careers. Bibliography Bernardin, J. H., & Klatt, L. A. (1985). 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